The immune system of the normal neonate is immature prematurity results in more severe immune defects and a dependence on life saving procedures such as mechanical ventilation intravascular access devices and parenteral nutrition infants with serious congenital malformations or neonatal disease may require complex surgery or mechanical support. Primary immunodeficiency disorders pidds are a group of inherited conditions affecting the immune system due to a lack of or dysfunction of white blood cells which have important roles in fighting infections having a compromised immune system can be serious and can lead to chronic illness permanent organ damage or even death. A deep puncture wound such as an animal bite or a nail piercing through a shoe can also provide a pathway for infection surgery to repair broken bones or replace worn joints also can accidentally open a path for germs to enter a bone implanted orthopedic hardware is a risk factor for infection circulation disorders. Human immunodeficiency virus hiv infection for infants children and adolescents is represented by a continuum of immunologic and clinical classifications ranging from no to severe immunologic suppression and asymptomatic to severely symptomatic acquired immunodeficiency syndrome aids is the end stage of the continuum also see chapter 29 hiv disease and aids page 1043. Immune system disorders cause abnormally low activity or over activity of the immune system in cases of immune system over activity the body attacks and damages its own tissues autoimmune
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